Wear and tear rental property

It’s vital that a landlord has a comprehensive inventory with supporting photographs and videos at the end of a tenancy, especially when it comes to assessing what damage caused by the tenant is unreasonable and what might be considered ‘fair wear and tear’.

Wear and tear is a fairly simple principle but can cause landlords a great deal of trouble unless they understand how it differs from wilful or negligent damage caused by the tenant and what level of costs can be proposed at the end of the tenancy.

A certain amount of wear and tear is unavoidable in rental properties. Over time as tenants live in homes, some damage will occur. This isn’t a result of abuse or neglect by your tenants, meaning they can’t be held responsible for it. However, sometimes tenants do cause an unacceptable level of damage to furniture, fixtures and fittings which they’re liable for under the tenancy agreement.

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The House of Lords defines fair wear and tear as ‘reasonable use of the premises by the tenant and the ordinary operation of natural forces’.

Normal wear and tear refers to gradual damage that you would expect to see in a property over time. For example, worn carpets, faded curtains and minor scuffs and scrapes on the walls are all things that are extremely difficult if not impossible to avoid over a period of months and years.

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This guide will cover:
  • What is considered ‘normal’ wear and tear in a rental property?
  • The difference between wear and tear and tenant damage
  • What to consider when calculating wear and tear
  • How to keep wear and tear to a minimum
  • A case study highlighting fair wear and tear and damages

What is a landlord property inspection

What is considered ‘normal’ wear and tear in a rental property?

Fair wear and tear is not a new concept, but it can often be overlooked when landlords and agents look to claim costs from tenants for damages.

A tenant must take proper care of the place… he must do the little jobs about the place which a reasonable tenant would do. In addition, he must, of course, not damage the house, wilfully or negligently; and he must see his family and guests do not damage it: and if they do, he must repair it.

Critically it is also stated that ‘If the house falls into disrepair through fair wear and tear or lapse of time, or for any reason not caused by him, the tenant is not liable to repair it.’

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The difference between wear and tear and tenant damage

A very important rule is that fair wear and tear refers only to the ‘condition’ and not the ‘cleanliness’ of a property or item. The property must be left cleaned to the same standard at the end of the tenancy as it was at the beginning, no matter if the tenancy lasted six months or four years!

In essence, fair wear and tear is the deterioration of an item or area due to its age and that which would be reasonably expected over the course of a tenancy, that is not due to the tenant’s actions or omissions.

For example deterioration such as scuff marks, scratches and wear to flooring is unavoidable in all properties. You must consider whether the deterioration is reasonable, or excessive, for the number of people and whether there are any pets living in the property. The key question is always, what part of any deterioration would have happened naturally anyway and is considered ‘reasonable’?  Or is the damage ‘unreasonable’ if it’s over and above what is normal use, considering all the circumstances?

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What to consider when calculating wear and tear

There are a number of factors that should be considered when assessing whether any costs should be proposed for damage at the end of the tenancy and calculating wear and tear.

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Who your tenants were and how many lived in the property

Different tenants will live differently in your property. Understanding the type of tenant you rent to will help you manage your own expectations on how they might leave the property at the end of the tenancy. If you have an HMO or student occupancy for example, you might expect greater wear and tear of the property compared to renting to a professional couple. Consequently, you might consider harder wearing or more economical carpeting and furniture. If you allow tenants to have pets then you might consider hard flooring.

Whoever your tenants are, remember that avoidable damage such as a child’s scribbles on the wall or any ripped furniture, that were not there at the start, is damage and not wear and tear and will therefore be a cost that the tenant is responsible for.

Eviction ban extension for landlords

Duration of tenancy and the age, expected life and quality of items and areas

It makes sense that the longer the tenancy the more natural wear and tear will occur and this should be factored into any calculations you make. Tenants are not responsible for normal wear and tear of any part of the property which was there before their tenancy started or during the time they lived there.

When assessing wear and tear, consider the age of the areas or items. What condition were they in to start with? Were they knew at the start of the tenancy? The life expectancy of an area or item can vary greatly depending on its quality and the amount of use it gets. Highly used areas such as carpets between two commonly used rooms will deteriorate more quickly than carpeting in other areas.  Adjudicators take a consistent approach to the deterioration of décor and carpets, for instance, allowing five years for their lifespan in a tenanted property, and just three years for student tenancies. The evidence will then show if the lifespan of that area or item can be adjusted.

Demonstrating the ‘quality’ of an item would need to be shown through records, via an invoice or receipt, or a contractor’s report. This needs to be evidenced on the inventory at check-in before the tenant moves in. For most tenancies, we do recommend removing any highly priced furnishings or items that you are not willing to ‘risk’ being damaged.

Landlord-Tenant Relationship

Avoiding betterment and considering apportionment

As a landlord, you are not legally entitled to have old items replaced with new ones at the tenant’s expense which would then leave you better off than you would have been had the damage not happened. This practice is called ‘betterment’.

Instead of benefitting from betterment the landlord must:

  1. Take into account fair wear and tear
  2. Carry out the most appropriate remedy, whether replacement or repair
  3. Not end up financially nor materially better off having observed (1) and (2)

How to keep wear and tear to a minimum

Having thorough reports to rely on is vital when a landlord is looking to prove damage and recover costs. Any dispute, however straightforward, takes time, effort and possibly money, all of which are better spent on other things. So if you can keep wear and tear to a minimum there is less likelihood of this becoming damaged and spilling over into a dispute.

There are a few simple things landlords can do to minimise wear and tear:


Maintaining good relations with your tenant from the start and giving them good guidance on how to look after the property can only be beneficial. Let them know what you expect of them during their tenancy and how best to contact you and report any issues at the time they notice them. Conducting mid-term inspections (i.e. every three or six months) can help you spot any issues as and when they arise. This will allow you to carry out any repairs promptly or give appropriate advice on problems such as condensation, without waiting until the end of the tenancy when problems may have got worse.

Breaking down any proposed costs for a tenant, by showing exactly what was considered and how the amount was calculated, can help diffuse any potential conflict.

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Photo and video evidence

The value of good visual evidence accompanying quality check-in and check-out inspection reports and any property visits carried out during the tenancy, will all help in any negotiation.

Also think about other written records which may help, such as invoices and emails.

Photographs and video footage of damage such as burn marks, carpet stains, scratches or damage to woodwork and flooring or tears and rips in furniture can be very useful. Bear in mind the importance of digitally dating photographs to verify when they were taken, or providing an inventory where photographs are embedded.

Evidence that is clearly dated and/or signed by the tenant serves as a good negotiating tool at the end of the tenancy. What’s more, when the tenant is made aware of their responsibilities and the potential cost of not looking after the property they are more likely to keep it in good condition.

Leaseholders who are in process of selling but have unpaid service charges
Please contact Pelin Martin to book a 30-minute complimentary property consultation on +0208 994 7327 – pm@bluecrystallondon.co.uk